Finance, Credit, Investments – Economical Categories

Scientific works in the theories of finances and credit, according to the specification of the research object, are characterized to be many-sided and many-leveled.The definition of totality of the economical relations formed in the process of formation, distribution and usage of finances, as money sources is widely spread. For example, in “the general theory of finances” there are two definitions of finances:1) “…Finances reflect economical relations, formation of the funds of money sources, in the process of distribution and redistribution of national receipts according to the distribution and usage”. This definition is given relatively to the conditions of Capitalism, when cash-commodity relations gain universal character;2) “Finances represent the formation of centralized ad decentralized money sources, economical relations relatively with the distribution and usage, which serve for fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and also provision of the conditions of the widened further production”. This definition is brought without showing the environment of its action. We share partly such explanation of finances and think expedient to make some specification.First, finances overcome the bounds of distribution and redistribution service of the national income, though it is a basic foundation of finances. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund which is the part of financial domain, belongs not to the distribution and redistribution of the national income (of newly formed value during a year), but to the distribution of already developed value.This latest first appears to be a part of value of main industrial funds, later it is moved to the cost price of a ready product (that is to the value too) and after its realization, and it is set the depression fund. Its source is taken into account before hand as a depression kind in the consistence of the ready products cost price.Second, main goal of finances is much wider then “fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and provision of conditions for the widened further production”. Finances exist on the state level and also on the manufactures and branches’ level too, and in such conditions, when the most part of the manufactures are not state.V. M. Rodionova has a different position about this subject: “real formation of the financial resources begins on the stage of distribution, when the value is realized and concrete economical forms of the realized value are separated from the consistence of the profit”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accent of finances, as distributing relations, when D. S. Moliakov underlines industrial foundation of finances. Though both of them give quite substantiate discussion of finances, as a system of formation, distribution and usage of the funds of money sources, that comes out of the following definition of the finances: “financial cash relations, which forms in the process of distribution and redistribution of the partial value of the national wealth and total social product, is related with the subjects of the economy and formation and usage of the state cash incomes and savings in the widened further production, in the material stimulation of the workers for satisfaction of the society social and other requests”.In the manuals of the political economy we meet with the following definitions of finances:
“Finances of the socialistic state represent economical (cash) relations, with the help of which, in the way of planned distribution of the incomes and savings the funds of money sources of the state and socialistic manufactures are formed for guaranteeing the growth of the production, rising the material and cultural level of the people and for satisfying other general society requests”.
“The system of creation and usage of necessary funds of cash resources for guarantying socialistic widened further production represent exactly the finances of the socialistic society. And the totality of economical relations arisen between state, manufactures and organizations, branches, regions and separate citizen according to the movement of cash funds make financial relations”.
As we’ve seen, definitions of finances made by financiers and political economists do not differ greatly.
In every discussed position there are:1) expression of essence and phenomenon in the definition of finances;2) the definition of finances, as the system of the creation and usage of funds of cash sources on the level of phenomenon.3) Distribution of finances as social product and the value of national income, definition of the distributions planned character, main goals of the economy and economical relations, for servicing of which it is used.If refuse the preposition “socialistic” in the definition of finances, we may say, that it still keeps actuality. We meet with such traditional definitions of finances, without an adjective “socialistic”, in the modern economical literature. We may give such an elucidation: “finances represent cash resources of production and usage, also cash relations appeared in the process of distributing values of formed economical product and national wealth for formation and further production of the cash incomes and savings of the economical subjects and state, rewarding of the workers and satisfaction of the social requests”. in this elucidation of finances like D. S. Moliakov and V. M. Rodionov’s definitions, following the traditional inheritance, we meet with the widening of the financial foundation. They concern “distribution and redistribution of the value of created economical product, also the partial distribution of the value of national wealth”. This latest is very actual, relatively to the process of privatization and the transition to privacy and is periodically used in practice in different countries, for example, Great Britain and France.”Finances – are cash sources, financial resources, their creation and movement, distribution and redistribution, usage, also economical relations, which are conditioned by intercalculations between the economical subjects, movement of cash sources, money circulation and usage”.
“Finances are the system of economical relations, which are connected with firm creation, distribution and usage of financial resources”.We meet with absolutely innovational definitions of finances in Z. Body and R. Merton’s basis manuals. “Finance – it is the science about how the people lead spending `the deficit cash resources and incomes in the definite period of time. The financial decisions are characterized by the expenses and incomes which are 1) separated in time, and 2) as a rule, it is impossible to take them into account beforehand neither by those who get decisions nor any other person” . “Financial theory consists of numbers of the conceptions… which learns systematically the subjects of distribution of the cash resources relatively to the time factor; it also considers quantitative models, with the help of which the estimation, putting into practice and realization of the alternative variants of every financial decisions take place” .These basic conceptions and quantitative models are used at every level of getting financial decisions, but in the latest definition of finances, we meet with the following doctrine of the financial foundation: main function of the finances is in the satisfaction of the people’s requests; the subjects of economical activities of any kind (firms, also state organs of every level) are directed towards fulfilling this basic function.For the goals of our monograph, it is important to compare well-known definitions about finances, credit and investment, to decide how and how much it is possible to integrate the finances, investments and credit into the one total part.Some researcher thing that credit is the consisting part of finances, if it is discussed from the position of essence and category. The other, more numerous group proves, that an economical category of credit exists parallel to the economical category of finances, by which it underlines impossibility of the credit’s existence in the consistence of finances.N. K. Kuchukova underlined the independence of the category of credit and notes that it is only its “characteristic feature the turned movement of the value, which is not related with transmission of the loan opportunities together with the owners’ rights”.N. D. Barkovski replies that functioning of money created an economical basis for apportioning finances and credit as an independent category and gave rise to the credit and financial relations. He noticed the Gnoseological roots of science in money and credit, as the science about finances has business with the research of such economical relations, which lean upon cash flow and credit.
Let’s discuss the most spread definitions of credit. in the modern publications credit appeared to be “luckier”, then finances. For example, we meet with the following definition of credit in the finance-economical dictionary: “credit is the loan in the form of cash and commodity with the conditions of returning, usually, by paying percent. Credit represents a form of movement of the loan capital and expresses economical relations between the creditor and borrower”.This is the traditional definition of credit. In the earlier dictionary of the economy we read: “credit is the system of economical relations, which is formed while the transmission of cash and material means into the temporal usage, as a rule under the conditions of returning and paying percent”.
In the manual of the political economy published under reduction of V. A. Medvedev the following definition is given: “credit, as an economical category, expresses the created relations between the society, labour collective and workers during formation and usage of the loan funds, under the terms of paying present and returning, during transmission of sources for the temporal usage and accumulation”.Credit is discussed in the following way in the earlier education-methodological manuals of political economy: “credit is the system of money relations, which is created in the process of using and mobilization of temporarily free cash means of the state budget, unions, manufactures, organizations and population. Credit has an objective character. It is used for providing widened further production of the state and other needs. Credit differs from finances by the returning character, while financing of manufactures and organizations by the state is fulfilled without this condition”.We meet with the following definition if “the course of economy”: “credit is an economical category, which represents relations, while the separate industrial organizations or persons transmit money means to each-other for temporal usage under the conditions of returning. Creation of credit is conditioned by a historical process of fulfilling the economical and money relations, the form of which is the money relation”.Following scientists give slightly different definitions of credit:
“Credit – is a loan in the form of money or commodity, which is given to the borrower by a creditor under the conditions of returning and paying the percentage rate by the borrower”.
Credit is giving the temporally free money sources or commodity as a debt for the defined terms by the price of fixed percentage. Thus, a credit is the loan in the form of money or commodity. In the process of this loan’s movement, a definite relations are formed between a creditor (the loan is given by a juridical of physical person, who gives certain cash as a debt) and the debtor.
Combining every definition named above, we come to an idea, that credit is giving money capital of commodity as a debt, for certain terms and material provision under the price of firm percentage rate. It expresses definite economical relations between the participants of the process of capital formation. Necessity of the credit relations is conditioned, from one side, by gathering solid quantity of temporarily free money sources, and from the second side, existence of requests of them.Though, at the same time we must distinguish two resembling concepts: loan and credit. Loan is characterized by:o Here, the discussion may touch upon transmission of money and also things form one side (loaner) to another (borrower): a)under the owning of the borrower and, at the same time, b) under the conditions of returning same amount or same quantity and quality of the things;o The loaning of money may bear no interest;o Any person may take part in it.
With the difference with loan, credit, which is somehow a private occasion of the loan, represents:o One side (loaner) gives to the second one (borrower) only money, and _ for temporal usage;o It may not bear no interest (if the assignment doesn’t foresee something);o In it creditor is not any person, but a credit organization (at the first place, banks).
So, a credit is the bank credit. To our mind, it is not correct to use “credit” and “loan” as the synonyms.
Banking crediting is the union of relations between bank (as a creditor) and its borrower. These relations touch upon:a) Giving a certain amount of money to the borrower for definite purpose (though, we meet with the so-called free credits, aims and objects of crediting are not appointed in the assignment);b) Its opportune returning;c) Getting percentage rate from the borrower for using the sources under his/her disposal.
The essential foundation of the credit essence and its important element is existence of trust between the two sides (in Latin “credo”, from which comes the word “credit”, means “trust”).
From the position of circulation of money forms (in the abstraction, historical process of formation economical relations and social budget and banking systems expressed by them) comparing different definitions of finances and credit, the paradox conclusion appears: credit is the private occasion of finances. And truly, from the position of movement of the money forms, finances represent the process of formation and usage of the funds of cash means. Very often such movements are fulfilled without returning, but sometimes, it is possible to give loans from the budget for the investment projects of other needs. Also, when a manufacture or corporations use their cash funds and we mean the finances of industrial subject, such usage may be realized as inside the manufacture or corporation (there is no subject about returning or not returning of the usage), so gratis under conditions of returning. This latest is called commercial form because of transmitting the sources to others, but even in this occasion, it is the element of financial system of the manufacture and corporation.From the point of cash means movement, main character of credit is the process of formation and usage of the funds of cash means under the conditions of returning and, as a rule, taking the value-percentage. If gating the credit value doesn’t take place (even in the exceptional occasions), according to the movement form, credit becomes a private occasion of finances, as from the net financial funds (consequently from the state budget) the loans which bear no interests may be used. If gating credit value takes place, by the appearance form, credit is discussed to be financial modification.From the historical point of view, finances (especially in the sort of the state budget) and credit (beginning with usury, later commercial and banking) were developing differently for considering credit to be the part of finances. Though, from the genetic-historical point of view, previous loaners, before giving loan, needed gathering the permanent capital not returning, that is the net financial foundation. The banks analogously needed concentration of the important own capital for influxing the consumers’ means and for getting higher percentage rate under the conditions of returning. Herewith, exactly on the financial basis, in the sort of financial fund (which later partially becomes loan fund) part of the bank capital appears to be the reservation (insurance) part of the fund, which by nature is financial and not loan. So notwithstanding the essential distinctions between finances and credit form the genetic-historical point of view, credit appears to be formed from finances and represent their modification.From the essential position of expressing economical relations of finances and credit, we meet with cardinal distinctions between these two categories. Which mostly expressed by the distinction of the movement forms notwithstanding they are returnable or not. Finances express relations in the aspects of distribution and redistribution of social product and part of the national wealth. Credit expresses distribution of the appropriate value only in the section of percentage given for loan, while according to the loan itself, a only a temporal distribution of money sources takes place.
Herewith, there is a lot of common between the finances and credit as from the essential point of view, so according to the form of movement. At the same time, there is a significant distinction between finances and credit as in the essence, so in the form too. According to this, there must be a kind of generally economical category, which will consider finances and credit as a total unity, and in the bounds of this category itself, the separation of the specific essence of the finances and credit would take place.Funding of the cash means is common to the researched economical categories. It takes place in any separate system of finances and credit, which have been touched upon during the analyses of defining finances and credit. Word combination “funding of the cash sources (fund formation)” reflects and defines exactly essence and form of economical category of more general character, those of finances and credit categories. Though in the in economical texts and practice, it is very uncomfortable to use a termini, which consists of three words. Also, “unloading” with an information hardens greatly its influxing into the circulation even in the conditions of its strict substantiation and thoroughness.
In the discussing context we consider:1) wide and narrow understanding of economical category of the finances;2) discussing finances in narrow understanding under general traditional meaning;3) discussing finances, as funding of the cash means, in wide understanding, which concerns finances – in narrow meaning and credit – in complete meaning.
Termini “funding” and its equivalent “fund formation” are used by us as the purposeful structuring of cash means, which is based on two poles – accumulation of money sources (gathering) and its usage for definite purpose in the way of financing and crediting.
We have established a new termini – “finance-investment sphere” (FIS). Analyses about interrelation of finances and credit made by us give us an opportunity of proving, that in the given termini, the word “financial” is used with the meaning of funding cash sources, its purposeful structuring. In this process we consider at the same time financial, credit and investments’ economical categories.Let’s sum up middle results of discussing new concept – “finance-investment sphere” and discuss its investment consisting parts.The concept “investments” was brought into the native economical science from the West. In the Soviet economical science they for a long time used in the place “investments” the termini “capital placement”, which expressed the usage of the industrial factors in the sphere of real industrial activities during realization of capital projects. From one glance, this termini in its concept is identical to the “investments”, consequently it is possible to use them as synonyms. Though the termini “investments” and “investing” have the advantage towards the termini “capital placement” from linguistic and philological points of view, because they are expressed with one word. This is not only economical and comfortable in the process of working with the termini “investment” itself, but also it gives an opportunity of termini formation. More concretely: “investment process”, “investment domain”, “finance-investment sphere” – all these termini are much more acceptable.
Changing native economical termini with foreign ones is purposeful, if it really matters (by keeping parallel usage of the native termini for the inheritance). Though we must not change native economical termini into foreign ones all together, when by ordinal traditional language easy to explain private and narrow concrete processes and elements get their own termini. The “movement” of these termini is approved in the narrow professional bounds, but their “spitting out” into the economical science may turn economical language into the tangled slang.Let’s discuss termini – “investment” and “capital placement’s” usage in the economical literature.
Investments are placement of funds into the main and circulation capital for the purpose of getting profit. “Investments in material assets – are the placements of funds into the mobile and real estate (land, buildings, furniture and so on). Investments in financial assets are the placements of funds into the securities bank accounts and other financial instruments”.We don’t meet with the termini “investments” in the earlier economical dictionary, but we meet the combined termini “investment policy” – the union of the industrial decisions, which guarantee main directions of the capital investments, the activities of their concentration in the determinant suburbs, on which the reaching of planned rates of development of the society production is depended, balancing and effectiveness, getting more and more production and profit of the national income for every lost Ruble”. For today, in the most actual definitions, the capital investments are bounded only by financial means, when not only financial, but also the investment of natural, material-technical and informational resources takes place. Labour resources take an actual place in the investment process. They themselves fulfill this or that investment process.A positive side of the discussed definitions is that they connect investment policy and capital placements (investments):- economical development according to the key directions to the concentration;- providing high rates of economical growth;- raising an economical effectiveness, which is expressed:a) by growing the throw off of the production and national income for every lost Ruble;b) by fulfilling the branch structure of the investments;c) by improving their technological structure;d) by optimization of their further production structure.Compared with such definition of the investments (capital placement) the definition of investments in the dictionary attaching the “Economics” seems to be unimproved: “investments – the expenses of gathering production and industrial means and increasing material reserve”. In this definition current expenses (production expenses) are mixed with the investment (capital) expense. Also, not the investment expenses but (though the investments are followed by the appropriate expenses) exactly advancing. It differs from the expenses by that the means (means) are put by returning the advanced values, also, under the conditions of growth, to which the concept-advanced capital is corresponding. the advancing may be realized in the money, natural-material and informational forms.Except the termini “investments”, there are two more termini related with the investment. They are shown below.”Human capital investment” – any activity provided for rising the workers labour productivity (in the way of growing their qualification and developing their abilities); at the expenses of improving the workers’ education, health and raising the mobility of the working forces”. It is very useful to use the mentioned termini, though it needs one correction: the human capital investments do not concern only workers, but also the servants, representatives of every kind of labour.
“Investment commodity, capital goods – a capital.”In the official manuals of political economy of the reformation time the capital investments are discussed as “expenses for creating new main funds and widening, reconstruction and renewing the active ones”. In this definition the investments (capital placements) during separation of the forms (types) of further production of the main funds are bounded only by main funds (without increases of the circulation funds and insurance reserves):a) creating new ones;b) widening;c) reconstruction;d) renewing.Also, the concept of the industrial gathering appears, at the expenses of widening of basic, circulation funds and also insurance reserves takes place”.You’ll meet below the definitions of investments from “the course of economy”: the investments are called “placements of fund into the basic capital (basic means of production), reserves, also other economical objects and processes, which request long-termed influxing of material and cash means. “According to the division of capital into physical and money forms, the investments too must be divided into material and cash investments”.They apportion investment commodity, to which belong industrial and nonindustrial building objects, vehicles purposed for changing or widened technical park and the furniture, increasing reserves and others.”They call the total investments of production an investment product, which is directed towards keeping and increasing the basic capital (basic means) and reserve. Total investments consist of two parts. One of them is called the depreciation; it represents important investment resources for compensation of renewal till the level of before industrial usage, wearing out and repairing of the basic means. Second consisting part of the total investments is represented by net investments – capital investments for the purpose of increasing basic means”. Depreciation is not a compensation resource of wearing the basic funds out, but it is the purposeful financial source of such resources.
Human capital investment is “a specific kind of investments, mostly in education and health protection”.”Real investments are the investments in the economical branches and also, they are kinds of economical activities, which provide influxing the increases of real capital, that is increasing material values of the industrial means”. We can agree with such definition with one specification that material and nonmaterial values too belong to the real capital (wealth), consequently science-researching experimental-construction results, various information, education of he workers and others. Such service as organization of the excitable games, also the service of redistribution social wealth from one private person to another (except charity).”Financial investments represent placement of funds into the shares, obligations, promissory notes, other securities and instruments. Such investments, of course, do not give increases of the real material capital, but they help getting profit, consequently at the expenses of changing the course of the securities in the time of speculation, or distinguishing the course in different places of sell and purchasing”. We share wholly such definition, hence it follows that financial investments (if it is not followed by real investments as a result) do not increase real material wealth and real nonmaterial wealth. According to this context, the expression below is very important: “we must distinguish financial investments, which represent placement of the funds in the ways of selling and purchasing the securities for the purpose of getting profit and financial investments, which become cash and real, moved to real physical capital.”In the “economical course” quoted before long and short-termed investments are separated. Recognizing the existence of the bounds between them, the authors ascribe short-termed investments to “one month or more” investments. If we get such conditioned criteria, that we can call the investments which overcome the terms of some months, long-termed ones, which is very doubtful and we don’t agree with it. A long-termed character of the fund placement is a significant feature of the investments (short-term doesn’t combine with the concept of investments). Principally, it would be better to point out quick compensative, middle termed compensative and long-termed compensative investments:- less then 6 months – quick compensative;- from 6 months up to the year and a half – middle termed compensative;- more then the year and a half – long termed compensative.We stopped at the definition of the investments in the capital work “economical course” for the special purpose, as, in it the author tried to discuss the concept of investments systemically and quite completely, herewith the book is published just now.We’ll return to the discussion the definition economical category of “investments” in different publications in the following chapter. The definitions given here are quite enough for having a notion of the level of lighting up the given category in the economical literature.
What conclusions may be made according the definition of the mentioned economical category in the published works, except the made notions and specifications?There is quite deeply, concretely and thoroughly defined the concept of “investments”, different definitions in the economical literature; but mostly in every works about the investments discussed by us until now, there is not opened the essence of investments as an economical category. In every monograph , even if it has a title investment, as an economical category , there is given only the definition, concept of investments. But, as the Academician Vasil Chantladze explains, “a concept is a discussion, which proves something about the distinguishing feature of the researched object. A concept out of much essential characteristic features represents only one, and essential in it is only – definition”.But the categories are much wider; it is “a key, the most fundamental concept of every science”. Economical categories theoretically represent real, objectively existed productive relations. A category is the defining of occasions of existed characters, connections, relations of the objective world. Generally, any educational process is fulfilled by the categories, which give opportunities for dividing the processes and occasions semantically, for expressing the definitions of a subject and realize their specific peculiarities and economical relations of a material world.
Our goal is exactly to substantiate investments – as an economical category and also, as a financial category in the narrow understanding.Here we apply for another manual thesis made by the academician Vasil Chantladze: “every financial relation is an economical one and every financial category is and economical one, but not every economical relation and economical category is financial relation and financial category”.
In the process of defining the investments, it is important to take in mind the sides of resources, expenses and incomes, because investment, from one side, is the result of the manufacture’s activity, and, from another one, – a part of income, which, in this case, is not used for usage.
Another occasion: it is advisable to discuss investments in two aspects: as a category of reserve and flow, which will reflect exactly the connection between “placement of funds” and “investments”.As we’ve mentioned above, not long ago, in the well-known Soviet literature the concepts of “the placement of funds” and “investments” were accepted to be the synonyms and concerned to be investment of sources for further production of the main funds and formation of the turnover funds. We meet with such understanding of the concept of “investment” (here, they separate three types of the investment expenses: investments in the basic capital of investments, investments in the house building and investments in the reserves) in the modern economical publications and it is mostly used on the macro level during a statistical analyze of economical processes. In this concrete occasion investment is the category of reserve.

Herbal Remedies – An Alternative Health Care Solution

If you listen to various conversations or read the comments left on most health related forums, it appears millions of people do not seem to be getting well these days, when relying solely on traditional healthcare practices. For many who have tried the available modern medical treatments without success, or have experienced the often unpleasant and sometimes dangerous effects of pharmacological(drug) treatments, alternative modes of health care appear to be their only hope.What is available to assist them?There are numerous alternative health care solutions to help individuals fix symptoms and conditions and enable them to enlist their personal power to create and maintain good health. These alternative health care solutions enable people to create and direct their own health care programs, which makes them healthier and happier, plus generate more successful outcomes.Herbal remedies is one of the available alternative modes of health care that is safe and effective, utilizing natural processes to ease symptoms and prevent disease. Herbal remedies are an all natural approach and healing art which was practiced long before the development of modern medicine and drug therapy. For many who have instituted this healthcare alternative, it has become a way of life, a celebration of the human bodies healing relationship with plants.There is no better way to truly experience the healing power of herbs then by actually using them. Reading and researching can help you establish what benefits are available in the various herbs. Can help you learn which herbal products is best for what ails you, how to grow, harvest, dry, and store herbs for your own use, including safe and effective usages as well as how to cook with them. However, none of this information will provide an ounce of prevention or healing until it is acted upon.Understand, herbal remedies are not intended to be substitutes for expert medical advice or treatment. Each one of us are unique and the possessor of individual discomforts. The advice of a professional health care provider may be necessary to diagnose these conditions and supervise treatment of your individual ailments. Knowledge of herbal remedies and their affects on your discomforts allows you to make informed choices and consult with your professional health care provider regarding how you can institute herbal remedy solutions along with their recommended treatment or as an alternative.Herbal medicine is a safe, useful, and practical natural health care alternative and it is not complicated to initiate. Herbal remedies come in many varieties from homeopathy (A method of treating disease with small amounts of remedies that, in large amounts in healthy people, produce symptoms similar to those being treated) to aroma therapy (The therapeutic use of aromatic plant extracts and essential oils in baths or massage) solutions. There is a perfect remedy available for everyone from children to adults, weekend warriors, and even the family pet.You can grow herbs at home and process, store, and brew them into helpful elixirs. It is so simply, you can do it in a window box. Just imagine, constant access to your own immune-enhancing herbs, salves, tinctures, creams, teas, and extracts. Always within reach to enhance your immune system, aid your digestion, increase your energy, and assist in relieving whatever is ailing you and your family.There is one information source which is quite valuable and should be part of your alternative health care library; an herb and symptom guide. This is a concise guide which includes an A to Z listing of herbs, illustrations, descriptions, specific uses, effective kinds of extracts, dose instructions and possible side effects and problems to watch our for. This will be the resource to go to when you need to know what herbal healing methodologies is necessary for a specific ailment.Herbs are unique healing plants. Knowing how to use them safely and correctly for everyday use, to maintain your health and that of your family and pets is essential. Herbal remedies are the medicine of the people. You do not have to grow your own, because of their popularity, you can purchase them at nearly any neighborhood supermarket, convenience store, or farmer’s market.So what are you waiting for? Shouldn’t you find out more about herbal remedies and products and what they can do for you and your family? Aren’t you interested in maintaining your good health through alternative methods?

Why Health Care Companies Are in Need of Health Care Law Firms

There are several reasons why health care companies utilize health care law firms. Due to the nature of the industry, agencies must secure legal representation to defend against certain claims and lawsuits. This can be in the form of class action suits, along with individual and even corporate claims. These specialized lawyers represent the providers in these cases. They also represent health professionals and organizations in regulatory and business matters. The latter helps ensure that all companies strictly comply with industry regulations and rules. In the event a particular product, service, or company offering is challenged, an attorney must step in to protect his or her clients.At times, medical companies may even face investigations by governing bodies and law enforcement. While state and federal regulatory agencies are always present, these companies cannot rely on these bodies to come to their rescue. This is especially true if a particular provider has unknowingly overstepped certain boundaries. Even for companies that have intentionally committed a questionable act; they still have access to timely and effective legal representation services. These law firms also assist agencies involved in medical malpractice suits. This includes nursing facilities, and especially home care and hospice providers.When an elderly family member is under hospice care, emotions are running at an all-time high. There are times when family members accuse the nurses of foul play, especially when the family member passes away. While their grief and anger is understandable, families that file lawsuits against caretakers is very common in the industry. As a result, home care and nursing agencies reach out to these law firms to protect their rights. This helps counter lawsuits from families and individuals, while ensuring the integrity of the company in question. The health care industry is incredibly intricate and complicated. To effectively preserve the company’s rights, legal representation is essential to tackle all legalities and compliances.Whether you need hospital or Medicare lawyers, health care law firms are always available to assist you. These specialized firms also stay abreast on all the latest health related laws, which help protect health care companies and their cases. These highly dedicated and skilled attorneys can also prevent costly legal problems before they impact client businesses. These firms simply possess years of extensive industry experience, and know how to neutralize threats within time and budget. They are also trained in crisis response, which may include customer lawsuits, threats, or industry investigations. Without proper legal representation and defense, health care companies would face a litany of charges and fines. This, however, is if they were found guilty of wrongdoing in a court of law. Still, why take a chance when proper legal representatives are available to defend your company’s rights?

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An Inside Look at the Importance of a Smile in Sales

If you’re in sales, then you’ve probably heard all sorts of advice, from “don’t oversell” to “focus on solving problems.” However, one of the best pieces of advice that many forget is to smile! After all, your smile is one of the first features people notice about you, and it plays an essential role in the first impression you make. Keep reading to learn all about the importance of a smile in sales (as well as how cosmetic dentistry can help!).

Smile: Your Sale Depends on It!

Knowing your product and knowing your audience are key in sales. However, you don’t get far if your client doesn’t trust you or believe you. That’s why it’s so important to make a good first impression! Here are a few ways a smile can help:

• Smiling is more powerful than you might think – One study found that smiling has the same effect on our brain as $25,000 in cash!

• Smiling communicates your state of mind – Smiling is a non-verbal cue that you are happy to be where you are, that you are confident in your product, and that you are ready and willing to help.

• Smiling creates a ripple effect of positivity – Have you ever seen a friend yawn and done the same? Or seen someone take a sip of water and immediately realized you’re thirsty? Thanks to the mirroring neurons in our brains, we naturally mimic the behavior of those around us.

But What If You Don’t Like Your Smile?

If you don’t like your smile, don’t worry – that’s where cosmetic dentistry comes in. Whether you’re struggling with misaligned, misshapen, cracked, or otherwise imperfect teeth, your smile goals aren’t out of reach. The first step? Scheduling an appointment with a skilled cosmetic dentist. For both my father and myself, providing high-quality, personalized, and judgment-free dentistry is a passion. There’s truly nothing better than seeing someone walk out of our office with a dazzling, confident smile! So, don’t wait to make your dream smile a reality – it could make all of the difference when it comes to your personal and professional life!

Where to buy beautiful rugs, floor mats and more.

Where to buy beautiful rugs, floor mats and more. Including unique t-shirts, dresses, bags and artworks. All in one website with free shipping worldwide!

QueenNoble.com is the exclusive online art gallery and home décor online store where items were designed by artist QueenNoble Dr. Elle Ramirez. You can get all your home decorating needs in one place without worrying the shipping fee. You can collect all her original art pieces and open editions from your comfort zone in just few clicks. All original artworks will be shipped straight from the country of exhibition with free shipping worldwide. Home décor on QueenNoble is not your usual home decoration items. Every items were designed by QueenNoble Dr. Elle Ramirez exclusively made from handmade paintings turned to manipulated photos to make stunning designs for every home décor items such as the rugs, lamps, wall decors and more. Of course the original artworks of QueenNoble are all available to every collectors who collect only original artworks. The prints are premium quality, framed and ready to hang for everyone’s convenience. Rugs, lamps, pillows and others are designed by QueenNoble, and then manufactured by partnered companies in Europe and in The United States.

The artist And Designer QueenNoble

Dr. Elle Ramirez also known as QueenNoble is an American international fine arts artist, designer, sculptor, photographer and an author. Dr. Ramirez creates rare textured and embossed abstract artworks from wall sculptures to embossed paintings. Her career began from year 2006 up to this present day. (See Wikipedia.)

QueenNoble is known for her textured and embossed abstract artworks mimicking planets, natural stones and rocks, abstract engraved portraits, several monochromatic and vivid concepts.

“Live Minimal” is one of QueenNoble’s art books released year 2021. (See Google Scholar Books)

QueenNoble is also an author of several mental health books like “Quarantine: The Challenges During Quarantine and How to Keep Our Sanity”. QueenNoble is also the author of the Novel called, “The Cart Season 1”. (See more on Amazon)

One Of A Kind Products You Can Buy On QueenNoble

One of a kind luxury collectibles with certificate. Unique items designed and curated by QueenNoble Dr. Elle Ramirez are now available on the official website. One collectible is to one collector or owner. Collectibles can be a wallet, bag, a piece of art, a furniture, a dress or a shirt and more. A first come first served basis. Handmade with love and attention. Own something that no one has in the entire world. Only on QueenNoble. What will you get on the top of that? You will receive a certificate of authenticity upon receiving your item. Free shipping worldwide. Free repair and replacement in case of a major manufacture error. Most items are handmade and are genuine leather so slight imperfections are visible which are the signs of most genuine leathers in the market. Varieties of items and vast selections although items are very quick to be sold.

Who does not want a one of a kind item? It is really disliked to run to someone with the same exact dress in an occasion or a business meeting! Now on QueenNoble not only original hand-painted artworks are available now you get to wear an art yourself anywhere and anytime. Display a furniture or a décor and be asked by a friend or a colleague, “Where can I buy one?” and of course the answer is “You can’t buy that in the market.” Because It is only one!

What happens after you buy a one of a kind on QueenNoble? The price increases yearly for 10 years. What an investment for yourself or a luxurious lifetime gift for a special someone!

From the author’s words:

If you are a collector and a shopper, QueenNoble is definitely where to go specially if you are looking for unique designer’s décor such as rugs, comforters, bags, wall art etc. A lot of selections to choose from. The designs are contemporary and modern. In one look you know where the products are from since you can only find them on queennoble.com. The processes are also very convenient and shipping is fast worldwide.

I bought a one of a kind bag. When I received it it came with an envelope consisting the certificate. The leather bag is stunning. Fast shipping and free delivery. They also offer free repair in case there is a manufacturer error for free.

Note also that if you are a merchant you can sign up on their trading program. There is a 15-30% commission. Less work for you all you do is share the url of the product and your designated coupon code which you’ll receive when you sign up and you get paid everytime someone uses your coupon code. Sound interesting right? Copy code, share url and code on your social media and earn as you go.

QueenNoble is also on Saatchiart, Artmajeur, Singulart Galleries. On QueenNoble’s original artworks, all artworks with certificate of authenticity will be shipped straight to the collector from the current exhibited country and also free shipping worldwide.

What are anti-ligature blinds?

Anti-ligature blinds are becoming increasingly popular in a range of different settings. The way these blinds differ from traditional blinds is that they are designed to prevent suicide by hanging.

Initially, uptake for this type of blind was largely restricted to high-risk environments such as psychiatric hospitals and prisons, where suicide is common. In mental health environments and detention centres, suicide via hanging is common and preventative measures must be implemented. A huge range of objects could be used to create a ligature point, meaning anti-ligature systems are highly important.

Over the years, anti-ligature blinds have been supplied to hospitals, schools, student accommodation and even hotels.

How do they work?

There are a range of different systems on the market, but the most reliable could well be the magnetic anti-ligature system. YewdaleKestrel® products utilise load release magnets which separate when a downward force is exerted on the product. This means that the product falls to the ground safely and prevents suicide via hanging.

The magnetic systems used in Yewdale’s products are highly reliable because magnets don’t lose their strength for hundreds of years, guaranteeing a lifetime of lifesaving functionality.

Anti-ligature blinds usually have a magnetic connection point above the blind’s barrel. The blind is easy to reconnect to the magnetic bracket after it has fallen to the floor.

If you are considering an anti-ligature blind, Yewdale is a highly recommended company. Based in the UK, Yewdale produce a wide range of anti-ligature products, commercial blinds, and healthcare products including hospital cubicle tracks and medical curtains.

Yewdale produce other anti-ligature products too including a soft, lightweight en-suite door and other accessories such as soap dispensers, toilet roll holder, shelves and artwork. You can see the full range on the website using the link below.

10 Unsafe Symptoms of Cell Phones Usage on Teens

10 Unsafe Symptoms of Cell Phones Usage on Teens

Over and wrong utilization of PDAs can harm mental as well as actual health. Parents might consider giving their teens cell phones for security motivations. Be that as it may, the conceivable abuse and opposite symptoms of cell phones on young people are not obscure. While it effectively is mindful of your kid’s whereabouts, taking into account its antagonistic consequences for teens is significant. As indicated by a review led by the Seat Exploration Center, around 785 of all youngsters between ages 12 and 17 have cell phones (1). It is a typical sight these days to see a gathering of youngsters standing together yet having no discussion and being engaged with themselves. Teens utilize their cell phones to call their folks and do other great and awful things. Around one of every four teens approach the web, definitely more than grown-ups. Look at the post to know whether cells are great for teenagers, the adverse consequences of PDAs, and tips on the safe use of cell phones.

Impacts Of Cell Phones On Youngsters

There is no question that a cell phone is a convenient device. It facilitates correspondence with partners, companions, and family members. However, every innovation that gives such advantages comes with a bunch of adverse consequences. The effect of cell phones on youth and society is tremendous. This region requires consideration when you are giving your high schooler a phone. This is the way PDAs influence, teens.

Teen tendonitis (TTT)
Abundance generation of messages can prompt High schooler Tendonitis (TTT). It causes torment in the hands, back, and neck because of the unfortunate stance. As per a five-year partner study, extreme phone use is known to bring about outer muscle problems, for example, tendonitis and first carpometacarpal joint pain in the lower arm and thumb.

Stress
Having a mobile phone will entice your high schooler to go the entire day talking or messaging as opposed to doing useful things. Studies have demonstrated that youngsters who invest a lot of their energy in their cells are more inclined to pressure, uneasiness, and melancholy. Research has additionally tracked down that extreme utilization of cell phones might bring about an expanded gamble of emotional well-being issues.

Sleep misfortune
Most teenagers keep their phones close by while resting to answer messages and calls and stay reachable nonstop. This might prompt rest interference and disturbance. Investigations have discovered that young people who use cell phones after the lights out experience expanded sluggishness. Additionally, undergrads who use phones after the beginning of rest are accounted for to be alert an extra 46 minutes out of every week.

Mishaps
Adolescents will quite often go to calls and text while driving, which is demonstrated to be risky. As indicated by the Places for Infectious prevention and Counteraction (CDC), adolescents are bound to be diverted more than drivers of some other age. Thus, utilizing a mobile phone while driving ought to be a severe no.

Uneasiness
Depending on messaging as an essential method of correspondence can increment uneasiness in youngsters. Messaging is right away satisfying, yet it likewise creates tension. The moment answered by a companion can give pleasure and euphoria. However, if there should be an occurrence of deferred reaction or no reaction, this equivalent joy can transform into disillusionment. Likewise, mobile phone habit can transform into a fixation to promptly take a look at messages and answer. It might likewise increment tension by making a deception that they had gotten a message in any event, when there was no message, making them regularly look at their telephones (3).

Hazard of malignant growth
Despite the fact that there’s no obvious proof of the connection between wireless use and disease, there are a few measurably huge relationships in certain individuals. Information gathered from five European nations have shown an expanded gamble of acoustic neuroma in people who utilized a cell for at least ten years.

Despite the fact that there is no unmistakable examination supporting the gamble of malignant growth and cell utilization, it is said to have a wide scope of well-being impacts.

Cyberbullying
As indicated by a review led on 13-18-year-olds by Cox Interchanges, 15% of kids had been cyberbullied on the web, 10% had been cyberbullied by cell, and 5% had cyberbullied someone else through a phone.

As indicated by a review, cyberbullying makes young people miserable and reluctant to go to class. This study has likewise observed that youngsters who are cyberbullied have a higher gamble of psychosomatic issues, for example, incessant migraines, issues nodding off, a higher pace of tension, and depression.

Cyberbullying is considerably more challenging to recognize than actual harassment as it will in general be more imperceptible. Additionally, the culprits can take cover behind the obscurity presented by the web.

Bogus distinction
The most recent advancements in cells have made it simple for youngsters to get any data. The majority of the things projected via online entertainment and the Web may not be exact, yet teens who are innocent (at their age) could view them in a serious way and get impacted. This could lead them to live in a dreamland and foster bogus renown. Some may likewise turn to wrongdoings to satisfy their dreams.

Heftiness
Steady utilization of phones may likewise cause weight in young people. As indicated by a review led by Harvard T.H Chan School of General Wellbeing, youngsters who spend more hours daily on phones are bound to become stout. The concentrate further says that youngsters who spend over five hours daily before screens are 43% bound to get less rest or exercise, bringing about weight

Vision issues
Expanded utilization of mobile phones is said to cause vision issues in young people. According to a review led by 30 clinical understudies, 83% of them were found to have wireless vision conditions. The side effects incorporate pressure, redness, consuming sensation, obscured vision, and dry eyes.

Over-the-top use of mobile phones outperforms their value and makes new issues for young people. While you may not prevent your teen from utilizing a mobile phone, it is feasible to restrict the use by laying out some guidelines.

Prior to giving wireless to your youngster, ensure they know about the focuses underneath.

Tips On Safe Use Of Cells For Youngsters

Cells are staying put, basically not at any point in the near future. Along these lines, you want to show your adolescents about cell phone security and how to dependably utilize it. They additionally need to have concurred limits for cell phone use. Here are far to stay away from the antagonistic impacts of cellphones on youngsters:

Complete weight loss strategy

For those who want to lose weight

Research on the causes of obesity, knowledge about weight loss, and various diets for weight loss are updated every year. However, with the update of knowledge and the release of diet pills one after another, the obesity rate continues to rise every year, and there is no sign of wanting to decline. I used to be very, very fat, and I am also a person who is prone to obesity.

So I understand the voices of fat people, I really want to lose weight, but I tried many ways to lose weight at that time without success.

I have tried the common boiled meals on the market, eating less and moving more, but it was not until I tried other diets that I managed to lose weight. After I lost weight, I began to study the essence and method of losing weight, and wrote him in this weight loss strategy article, hoping to help you.

A few key myths about losing weight

The weight loss myth of eating less and moving more

The phrase “eat less and move more” is actually true, but most people do it wrong. Many people think that they should eat less of everything, so they limit their calories to a very low level, and it feels a bit like eating an ultra-low-calorie fairy meal. Then, for the hyperactive part, the first thing that everyone thinks of is aerobic exercise such as running, cycling, etc., but in fact, this is a very short-term and easy way to regain weight, mainly because eating too little is an easy way to lose weight. The reason for the loss of muscle mass, coupled with the fact that aerobic training is not helpful for muscle mass growth, causes the metabolism to drop too much.

Maybe you can lose 5 kilograms in this way, but if your metabolism declines, you will easily regain the weight. And it’s all the fat that gets back up, not the muscle you lose that makes you look fatter than before. This is what we call the yo-yo effect, lose weight, get fat back, get fatter than before, lose weight, get back on Fat, get fatter than before.

Stop taking diet pills and meal replacements

At this time, you may start to seek other ways, eat weight loss meal replacements, taking diet pills, and so on. But believe me, most diet pills will inevitably hurt the body, especially the gastrointestinal tract. You may actually lose weight in the moment, but when your gastrointestinal tract is damaged, you will be fatter than before.

The key to understanding how to lose weight

You must have thought, why some people will not gain weight no matter what they eat, while some people will gain a kilogram the next day after eating a little bread? What is the cause of obesity? This is not a simple answer that can be solved!

You can see the link to the picture below, mainly talking about the influencing factors of obesity, which are very, very complicated.

Image source: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/296290/obesity-map-full-hi-res.pdf

In the middle of this picture is the heat balance

So we can know that calorie balance is very important

But this article doesn’t keep preaching that calorie balance is the key to losing weight like other sites

If you don’t know what calorie balance is, you can probably imagine that our body has calorie consumption (exercise, thermogenesis, basal metabolism), and calorie intake (eating).

When calorie consumption exceeds calorie intake, the weight will drop, so the truth of weight loss is to eat less and move more, very simple. In the short term, it is really possible to simply achieve weight loss by eating less and moving more, but simplicity is not simple, because the operation of the body is very complicated. Many people think that they can control their calorie consumption, that they can achieve a lot of calorie expenditure by running all the time, and that eating fairy meals (low-calorie meals) can reduce calorie intake and then easily lose it.

However, according to research, 90% of people who use calorie control, eat less and move more to lose weight will fail or regain the weight.

Because eating less and moving more for too long, metabolism will easily drop, hormones will easily become imbalanced, and muscle mass will easily be lost. Even if you lose 10 kilograms, you will easily regain weight.

When losing weight, the body is like a factory

For me, the key to long-term weight loss and maintaining good posture is the environment in the body, such as hormones, the level of inflammation in the body, and the gastrointestinal system.

Think of the body as a factory

-Your hormones are the managers and workers of factory operations

-Inflamed condition is how good factory machinery and hardware are

-Calorie intake is wages for factories as well as fuel

If the manager of this factory is an idiot, or if the hardware in your factory is completely rotten, then no matter how it works, it will create a pile of waste. Just as our hormones are already out of balance and the level of inflammation in the body is very high, no matter how much you eat, if you don’t solve the existing problems, it will easily accumulate into fat. It may be easier to understand with a few examples.

Hormones vs Weight Loss

This study looked at the effects of sleep and weight loss

Research source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20921542

Both groups of humans were calorie-restricted, but one group slept 5.5 hours a night and the other 8.5 hours. Both groups lost weight, but the group that slept less lost 55 percent less body fat and 65 percent more muscle mass than the group that slept more. It is equivalent to losing weight, but most of the loss is muscle mass, which reduces metabolism and makes it easy to regain weight later.

There is such a big difference mainly because poor sleep has a negative impact. The imbalance of the secretion of these things will easily increase fat and reduce muscle.

This next study looks at the effect of insulin sensitivity on body composition!

Research source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19471290

Basically, many chronic metabolic diseases, obesity, and poor muscle-building effects are closely related to low insulin sensitivity. Insulin is an anti-catabolic hormone whose main function is to store nutrients in cells. For example, after heavy training, our muscles will be more sensitive to insulin, and the nutrients we eat will be more easily absorbed into the muscles. When insulin sensitivity is low, the nutrients we eat are more likely to be stored as fat rather than absorbed into muscles.

We can simply say that the nutrients in the food eaten by people who are insulin insensitive are more likely to be stored as fat, and the relative fat mass will be much higher than the muscle mass.

To put it simply, the key to losing weight is actually to improve hormones, improve inflammation in the body, and add an appropriate calorie deficit. It is not difficult to achieve a calorie deficit. What is more difficult is how to choose the type of food that suits your body to improve hormones and achieve a long-term good body.

If you only pursue short-term weight loss and rely on a lot of calorie deficits to achieve the effect of weight loss, and then the hormones are still the same after the loss, then I can guarantee that you will gain weight very easily.

With so many ways to eat on the internet, which diet should I try?

When talking about losing weight in Taiwan 30 years ago, everyone would definitely want to use boiled meals

When it came to losing weight five years ago, everyone might think of using a low-sugar diet. When it came to losing weight in the past two or three years, everyone might directly think of the ketogenic diet.

I lost 30kg in 3 months on a low-sugar diet myself for the first time, so I used to believe that a low-sugar diet was the best way to lose weight

But after my long-term understanding of weight loss-related research, genetic cognition, and observation of students, there is no diet that is most suitable for everyone! Although it is said that high-carbohydrate foods will most stimulate insulin secretion, which in turn promotes the storage of nutrients into fat, some people are naturally good at metabolizing carbohydrates, so they can still be healthy and strong after eating high-carbohydrate throughout their lives.

For example, this study compared the responses of people with high and low insulin sensitivity to high- and low-carb diets.

Research source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1038/oby.2005.79

The study concluded:

-For people with high insulin sensitivity, eating high-carb and low-fat to lose weight is very helpful

-However, people who are insulin insensitive use a high-carb low-fat diet to lose fat, but the weight loss effect is not so good.

But on the contrary, studies have also shown that people with low insulin sensitivity have a very good weight loss effect on a low-carb high-fat diet, which shows that improving insulin is very important for weight loss, and it also shows that people with insulin insensitivity are more suitable

Lose weight with a high-carb diet.

So if you have been obese for a long time, you know that you eat carbohydrates easily, or you know that you have diabetes in your family and want to lose fat, then I would suggest that you can start by reducing carbohydrates, which is what we call low carb diet!

The Negative Impact of E-Levy on Mobile Banking.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Mobile Banking is a service provided by a bank or other financial institution that allows its customers to conduct financial transactions remotely using a mobile device such as a smartphone or tablet.

Electronic Transaction Levy or “E-Levy” is a tax applied on transactions made on electronic or digital platforms.

ADVANTAGES OF MOBILE BANKING

Mobile banking offers numerous benefits such as ease of transaction, convenience, time-saving, managing your finances, and budgeting. Some advantages of Mobile Banking in remote areas include:

Financial Inclusion — mobile banking offers convenient and easy banking services to people in remote areas. Thus, it allows banking on the go and offers all benefits of a banking system to rural areas without the presence of a financial institution.

Accessing the bank 24/7 — Mobile banking provides ubiquitous banking services without the need to visit the bank to have access to services. This offers time to benefit and ease of transacting at a distance.

Cost-benefit — Mobile banking saves the banks the cost of building physical infrastructures (branches) and maintaining branches and staff. Also, reduced costs on the customer side since the burden of visiting the bank for services is eliminated.

Improving resilience in the face of poverty — Mobile money acts as both a savings vehicle and a means of transferring funds during times of economic or environmental shocks.

Strengthening the formal economy — For many micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs), opening a mobile money account can facilitate access to formal financial services. Mobile money is well placed to address the issue of informality that blights many developing economies and hampers domestic resource mobilization efforts. Mobile Money enables ease of transacting, thus increasing business profits for MSMEs.

Facilitating economic growth — Mobile money has been shown to contribute to economic growth by increasing both productivity and per capita incomes

DISADVANTAGES OF E-LEVY ON MOBILE BANKING

The design of mobile money taxation policy appears to be the antithesis of a well-designed tax system. The disadvantages include:

Inequity — Mobile money taxes as currently structured to create inequity in the tax system. As the tax is mostly borne by the poor and users of the services are subject to additional taxation (unlike bank or cash transactions), the principles of both horizontal and vertical equity in the tax system are contravened.

Uncertainty -. Uncertainty and lack of transparency over taxation systems can have a direct impact on the operations of the tax authority, increasing enforcement costs, as well as discouraging investment.

Inconvenience — The administration of mobile money transaction taxes creates an inconvenience for MMPs who must calculate and collect the tax on the revenue authority’s behalf. There is an additional inconvenience for users of the service for whom remote digital transactions become more expensive or out of reach if they revert back to cash.

Inefficiency — Badly designed mobile money taxes have been shown to have a distortionary impact on demand for mobile money services. This in turn has had negative impacts on overall tax takes, as well as impacting the attainment of national economic and development goals.

EFFECT OF MOBILE BANKING — CASE STUDIES

The decision to impose taxes on mobile bank transactions will trigger so many problems.

Ghana — According to The Fourth Estate Ghana; Although the government projects a 24% decline in transactions when the levy is finally implemented, preliminary findings published by the bank of Ghana indicate the value of mobile money transactions had dropped by 3.2 billion in December 2021, less than 2 months after the proposal to introduce E-levy.

Uganda — An e-levy of 1% introduced in 2018 has led to an overall drop in the person-to-person transaction by more than 50%, and a 24% drop in industry transactions within the same year the tax was introduced according to a report by Global system for mobile communication (GSMA).

Congo — An e-levy of 1% was introduced in 2019. The government had to reverse the tax on cash outs only due to negative results of the levy on Mobile money users such as a decline in mobile money agents (unemployment) and high-value withdrawals by people.

Other countries include Benin (5%) and Cameroun (0.2%). In all these countries, the e-levy has imposed a negative effect on the economy and people. If we want to ensure the financial inclusion of people in rural areas, we need to ensure that we encourage mobile banking by withdrawing the e-levy tax.

Reference:

https://thefourthestategh.com/2022/03/16/e-levy-this-is-what-happened-when-other-african-countries-passed-it/

Purohit, S., & Arora, R. (2021). The benefits and challenges of mobile banking at the Bottom of the pyramid. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government Vol, 27(1).

Charles G. Kpan, Jr. is an Information Technologist with over 5 years of experience in the provision of Information Technology Services and an emphasis on Web Development and Visual Branding. He’s the managing Director of CYGEC IT SOLUTIONS INC. and holds a bachelor’s Degree in Information Technology from Blue Crest University, Liberia.